Franklin Style Manual Online

2.2.2. What details to include in in-text notes

The guidelines in Section 2.2.1 explain how to place the three standard details of information generally required for in‐text notes. These standard details include the following:

  • author (or authors, last names only);
  • year (no full dates, even if listed on the References page); and
  • page reference (for quotations and paraphrases, but not summary statements).
However, what you present in in‐text notes ultimately depends upon the associated listings on the References page, which may include sources with no identified author and other kinds of sources complicating the standard requirements listed above. Not only are there a few kinds of sources that do not have the typical information listed above, but some extra details may also be required for in-text notes referring to sources cited similarly on the References page. As you create in‐text notes, ask these questions:


Are more than five authors listed for a source?

To avoid a cumbersome in‐text citation, you should list only the first author’s last name followed by the Latin abbreviation et al. (“and others”). Examples: Kurland et al. (2010) concluded . . . or . . . (Kurland et al., 2010, p. 459‐-460).


Are two sources listed on your References page written in the same year by two authors with the same last name?

Provide initials before the surnames to distinguish the two sources.


Is a source by an organizational author?

An “author” is not limited to an individual person or specific individual. Sources may be credited to public corporations, private companies, not‐for-profit organizations, government agencies, and other kinds of group authors. When citing an organizational author in the main body of the text, spell out the whole name of the group or organization the first time it is used. If you plan to use an abbreviation later in the text, introduce the abbreviation in parentheses after the organization’s full name. In some cases, this abbreviation will appear in the same parenthetical note as the year and page number. See example E. below.


Is a source unsigned?

If an author is unknown, the first item of the entry on the References page should be a title, rather than an author’s name. Corresponding in‐text notes should reflect this fact by referring to a shortened version of the source’s title instead of a name. When a title appears in the body of the paper, all major words should be capitalized. Titles italicized on the References page should be italicized within the body of the text, while those with no special formatting on the References page, such as article titles, should be placed within quotation marks. See example K.


Are there multiple sources on the References page written by the same author(s) in the same year?

To distinguish one source from the other(s), you must put a distinguishing lowercase letter after the year in each entry on the References page listing the same year (e.g., 1999a, 1999b, etc.). This same lowercase letter will also appear in all in‐text citations for the source.


Are you citing multiple sources in the same parenthetical note?

Separate each citation with a semicolon and order them according to how they appear in the References page—that is, alphabetically with multiple sources by the same author listed earliest to latest. See example K.


Are you using quotations or observations that your source attributes to another, secondary source?

When quoting a passage that includes in‐text citations within it, you need do nothing different than you would for any quotation: simply provide the passage verbatim with quotation marks, including the source’s in-text note within the quotation marks. Alternatively, you may decide to use the secondary source’s words alone as the primary point of interest, which commonly occurs when quoting from public remarks published in news sources. In which case, you would provide an in‐text note crediting the author who is quoted in the source you are actually using—the one you are putting on your References page. Precede the in‐text to the source listed on your References page with the phrase as quoted in or as cited in. As long as you do not quote your source’s source directly (sometimes a better option when actually published separately), you need not add it to your References page. See example H. below.


Does a source you are quoting or paraphrasing lack page numbers?

While many online articles actually do have pagination (especially PDF versions—which most instructors prefer), when page numbers are not listed by the source, cite paragraph or section numbers as provided (preceded by or the abbreviation para.). When no reference numbers are provided at all, cite any available section heading. Page references are not required for single‐page sources, but other reference locators are welcome, especially if referring to a long Web page. See D., E., and G.. below.


Last Updated: 06/8/2012 13:12