Franklin Style Manual Online

2.2.1 Where to put in-text notes

The key details for in‐text notes, which will be discussed more in Section 2.2.2, can actually appear in two different locations surrounding the quotation, paraphrase, or summary being cited: (a) in a parenthetical note following the cited material or (b) in the main flow of the sentence introducing cited material. Sometimes, you will put citation details in both places. While you always have the option of putting your entire in‐text citation within a parenthetical note, keep in mind that some sources are best introduced in the main flow of the sentence to demonstrate to readers the credibility and relevance of the research, but also to provide smoother transitions. For instance, you might want to give readers some background about an author, noting his or her expertise in the field, before giving a quotation. Here are some basic guidelines for the two citation techniques:

(a) When citing a source entirely within a parenthetical citation, place the author’s last name (no first names or initials) immediately after the opening parentheses, followed by a comma and the year of publication. If the source is attributed to multiple authors, list all the authors’ last names, separating them with commas and putting an ampersand before the final name in the list; omit the comma when only two names are listed. To cite specific pages being paraphrased or quoted, put a comma after the year of publication, and then list a location reference indicating where the material appears in the source. Be sure to use the appropriate location abbreviation, depending on the medium of the source and whether it is paginated (e.g., p., pp., para., sect., etc.). Finally, be sure to place the parenthetical citation immediately after the relevant information in the sentence and before subsequent punctuation marks, including ending punctuation for the sentence itself.


One argument against a growing housing bubble in the mid-2000s was steadiness in the Housing Affordability Index (Smith, 2005, p. 30). A rise would have . . .

(b) When introducing a source in the main flow of the sentence, provide the author’s last name, just as you would in a parenthetical citation. As with parenthetical citations, first initials are not generally used; in the main flow of the sentence, however, you do have the option of listing an initial or even a full first name. Place the year in parentheses immediately after the author’s last name, unless you have already mentioned the year of publication as part of your segue to the source. For multiple authors, list all their last names separated by a comma with the word and before the last author’s name. The year goes in parentheses after the last author’s name. Page references (or other kinds of location references, such as section headings) go in parentheses after the quotation or paraphrase, following the guidelines for parenthetical note placement described above.


A prominent real-estate economist, Smith (2005) eschewed the possibility of a housing bubble by citing steadiness in the Housing Affordability Index (p. 30). A rise would . . .

Last Updated: 06/8/2012 17:12