Franklin Style Manual Online

2.3.6. Listing reference articles, government documents, and other special genres

The sources listed on this page represent special genres that have more or less unique citation requirements. These sources can be found both online and in print, and their publication details should be listed accordingly. Be sure to review the guidelines in earlier sections so you understand how the basic citation requirements already covered are adjusted to fit these special genres.

Is the author of the source an organization or corporation?

If so, list the name of the organization fully spelled at the beginning of the entry, in place of a personal author name. If the organization is also the publisher, after the place of publication, simply put the word Author.



Girl Scouts of the USA. (2010). 2009 annual report. New York, NY: Author.

Are you citing an entry from a reference work, such as an encyclopedia or dictionary?

If there is a byline for the entry, which sometimes occurs in highly specialized reference works, then list that author at the beginning of your citation. If no author is identified for the specific entry, begin with the title of the entry (no italics or quotation marks). Next, list the copyright year or, for online references, the most recent posting date for the entry (if provided). Next, provide the title of the overall reference work in italics, preceded by the word In. Provide any available edition or volume information in parentheses (no italics) after the title. Finally, list publication details as appropriate for the medium: either place and publisher or online retrieval information.



Psychometrics. (n.d.). In The psychology wiki. Retrieved January 8, 2011, from

Winfrey, Oprah. (2005). In C. H. Krismann (Ed.), Encyclopedia of American women in business (Vol. II, pp. 563-565). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Zambia. (2010, December 28). In The world factbook. Retrieved January 6, 2011, from

Are you citing a speech, lecture, or other presentation?

List like any other original work, beginning with the name of the presenter, date, and title (in italics). After the title, describe the presentation (e.g., speech, lecture, etc.), giving the name of the event, sponsoring organization, and location where the event took place. When using a transcript of a presentation, close the entry with the relevant publication information (i.e., as a book part, a periodical article, or Web source).



Purdue Online Writing Lab. (n.d.). Invention (prewriting) [PowerPoint file]. Retrieved January 1, 2011, from /20071017013746_695.ppt

Stirm, A. (2005, Spring). The importance of strong introductions and conclusions. ENG 111: Bowling Green State University.

Are you citing an organization sponsored report?

If using a printed copy, cite like a book; if using an online copy, cite like similar online sources (i.e., e‐books or Web pages). In parentheses after the title, insert any identifying report numbers. Note that many reports are by organizational authors, but some credit specific individuals. The publisher is usually an organization, however.



Pew Research Center. (2010, November). Paid content (omnibus) [SPSS data file]. Retrieved from the Pew Internet and American Life website:

Are you citing documents by government agencies?

These sources are generally cited like similar group‐author sources in the same medium. When listing the authoring organization, however, be sure to begin with the overall government entity (e.g., U.S.; Ohio; Franklin County; City of Columbus, OH; etc.), narrowing down to the agency or office producing the document.



U.S. National Endowment for the Arts. (2009). 2008 survey of public participation in the arts (NEA Research Report #49). Retrieved from research/2008-SPPA.pdf

Are you citing official documents produced by the U.S. Congress?

There are conventional abbreviations used for documents produced by the U.S. Congress (see Begin the entry with an abbreviation indicating the government entity responsible for the source (e.g., S. for Senate, H.R. for House of Representatives, etc.). Then list official type of document (e.g., Res. for Resolution, Rep. for Report, etc.) along with any associated numeric identifier. Finally, list the number of the Congressional session and the year of publication.

Are you citing the Congressional Record?

After the numeric identifier for the document (see above), put a comma, the volume housing the materials, the abbreviation Cong. Rec., and the page where the relevant materials begin in the Congressional Record, all before the publication date.

Are you citing a Congressional hearing or testimony?

Start with the title of the testimony or hearing, including the name of the relevant committee—all in italics. Next, put a comma, the number of the Congress, and the first page where the hearing begins in the official documentation.

Last Updated: 06/8/2012 13:15