Franklin Style Manual Online

2.2.5. Sources needing in-text notes but no entry on the References page

Finally, realize that there are a few kinds of sources that require in‐text citations, but no corresponding entries on the References page.


Are you citing an unpublished communication (e.g., email, memo, interview, etc.)?

These sources cannot be found and verified by your readers by doing standard source searches; consequently, there is little use for fuller detail on the References page. Even so, you are required to acknowledge when such sources have influenced your own writing. When relying on personal communications for important parts of your paper, consider putting transcripts in an appendix (see Section 4). Whether you provide fuller text in an appendix or just make passing references, the in‐text citation must have the following information: (a) the last name of the author (initials and names are acceptable here), (b) a description of the source, and (c) the date of the communication.

IN‐TEXT CITATIONS FOR UNPUBLISHED COMMUNICATIONS


According to one expert, . . . (J. Bolton, personal interview, January 10, 2009). According to an e-mail from M. Tan (personal communication, September 9, 2010), . . .


Are you citing classical or sacred texts with well-known editions and citation practices?

Since readers have many options for accessing the same text you are using, you do not need an entry on the References page to direct them to a specific publication. However, you should tell readers the version of the text you are using and refer to specific passages by way of standardized numbering for the source. Biblical passages, for instance, are cited by book, chapter, and verse; Shakespeare’s plays are cited by referring to the act, scene, and line numbers. Many modern editions provide examples (in their introductory materials) demonstrating how to cite specific passages through standard citation schemas. Your instructor can help you determine whether a source is considered a classical or sacred text common enough to omit from the References page.

IN‐TEXT CITATIONS SACRED AND CLASSICAL TEXTS WITH COMMON VERSIONS AND CITATION SCHEMES


The authority of civic leaders has often been attributed to a divine hand, as conveyed, for example, in Ezekiel: “I will set a shepherd over them” (32:23, King James Version).


Are you citing a full website without referring to specific pages?

While you will often quote or paraphrase specific passages on a website, you may only make summary statements about the contents or authorship of a site. When referring to specific passages, you must give a full citation on your References page (see Section 2.3.3 and Section 2.3.4). If only making general observations, however, you need only mention the name of the site and give a quick parenthetical note for the site’s URL. Since you are referring to the whole site, rather than a specific page, the URL should be very short.

IN‐TEXT CITATIONS TO WHOLE WEBSITES (RATHER THAN SPECIFIC PAGES)


Amazon (http://www.amazon.com) is a commonly known provider of e-books. . . .




Last Updated: 06/8/2012 13:12